Tag Archives: protocols

MPLS “No Label” vs “Pop Label”

I like MPLS. And I don’t necessarily mean as a solution to solve a problem, but as something to configure in the lab. It’s fun to build things that do something when you’re done. Setting up OSPF or EIGRP and being able to traceroute across routers is meh. But configuring MPLS with all the associated technologies — an IGP, LDP, MP-BGP, — and then getting all of them working in unison… when you get the traceroute working, it’s rewarding.

Here’s something to keep an eye out for when you’re troubleshooting MPLS: An LFIB entry (that is, the Label Forwarding Information Base) that states “No Label” versus one that states “Pop Label”. These mean very different things and can be the difference between a working Label Switched Path (LSP) and a non-working LSP. Continue reading MPLS “No Label” vs “Pop Label”

Five Functional Facts about VXLAN

It seems appropriate to write a FFF post about Virtual Extensible LAN (VXLAN) now since VXLAN is the new hotness in the data center these days. With VMware’s NSX using VLXAN (among other overlays) as a core part of its overall solution and the recent announcement of Cisco’s Application Centric Infrastructure (ACI) and the accompanying Nexus 9000 switch, both of which leverage VXLAN for delivering a network fabric, it seems inevitable that network engineers will have to use and understand VXLAN in the not too distant future.

As usual, this post is not meant to be an introduction to the technology; I assume you have at least a passing familiarity with VXLAN. Instead, I will jump right into 5 operational/technical/functional aspects of the protocol.

For more information on VXLAN, check out the draft at the IETF. Continue reading Five Functional Facts about VXLAN

Five Functional Facts about OTV

Following on from my previous “triple-F” article (Five Functional Facts about FabricPath), I thought I would apply the same concept to the topic of Overlay Transport Virtualization (OTV). This post will not describe much of the foundational concepts of OTV, but will dive right into how it actually functions in practice. A reasonable introduction to OTV can be found in my series on Data Center Interconnects.

So without any more preamble, here are five functional facts about OTV.

Continue reading Five Functional Facts about OTV

DCI: Using FabricPath for Interconnecting Data Centers

Here’s a topic that comes up more and more now that FabricPath is getting more exposure and people are getting more familiar with the technology: Can FabricPath be used to interconnecting data centers?

For a primer on FabricPath, see my pervious article Five Functional Facts about FabricPath.

FabricPath has some characteristics that make it appealing for DCI. Namely, it extends Layer 2 domains while maintaining Layer 3 – ie, routing – semantics. End host MAC addresses are learned via a control plane, FP frames contain a Time To Live (TTL) field which purge looping packets from the network, and there are no such thing as blocked links – all links are forwarding and Equal Cost Multi-Pathing (ECMP) is used within the fabric. In addition, since FabricPath does not mandate a particular physical network topology, it can be used in spine/leaf architectures within the data center or point-to-point connections between data centers.

Sounds great. Now what are the caveats? Continue reading DCI: Using FabricPath for Interconnecting Data Centers