It's funny, in my experience, OSPF is the most widely used interior gateway protocol because it "just works" and it's an IETF standard which means it inter-ops between different vendors and platforms. However, if you really start to look at how OSPF works, you realize it's actually a highly complex protocol. So on the one hand you get a protocol that likely works across your whole environment, regardless of vendor/platform, but on the other you're implementing a lot of complexity in your control plane which may not be intuitive to troubleshoot.
This post isn't a judgement about OSPF or link-state protocols in general. Instead it will detail five functional aspects of OSPF in order to reveal-at least in part-how this protocol works, and indirectly, some of the complexity lying under the hood.